Japan earthquake, tsunami and Fukushima nuclear disaster: 2011 review. Opinion. It shuts down transport systems and nuclear power stations to … The great plates are rough and stick together, building up energy that is released as earthquakes. h��Xmo�6�+��aK�w�@a q�C����As�Ām� When verifying the proposed reconstruction plan, numerical modelling is useful. 3. On March 11, 2011, a 9.1 magnitude earthquake occurred 231 miles northeast of Tokyo.  analysed survivor videos and measured flow velocities of about 10 m s−1 for the inundation flow that penetrated through the city , and produced a hydrograph of the tsunami. The 6.3 m s−1 of inundation flow of the ascending tsunami caused a drag force per unit meter width of 100 kN m−1 . Earthquake source studies indicate that the fault ruptured with a maximum slip of 60–80 m  over an area approximately 450 km by 200 km , making the pre-2011 estimates irrelevant. Learning lessons, we should note that there are still limitations on the reliability of technologies that can be used in a very short time. Another story from Kamaishi city will give answers to the above questions. The discussion mainly focuses on structural measures such as seawalls and breakwaters and non-structural measures of hazard map and evacuation. As indicated in the figure, we found that the multiple protection measures for Level 2 tsunami will contribute to substantially reduce the tsunami inundation zone and flow depth on Sendai plain especially at the western side of 6 m elevated prefectural road. The solid lines are obtained from the devastated municipalities of Miyagi prefecture (from the 2011 event) and the dashed one is from Banda Aceh, Indonesia (the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami) .Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerPoint. That Japan was not adequately prepared for the tsunami that hit the northeastern Honshu coast on March 11, 2011, first became apparent at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Japan is one of the best tsunami-prepared countries in the world, which is one of the reasons the world is still reeling from the 2011 event. Black dots on the coastline indicate the points of the 2011 tsunami height measurement. 4. The earthquake was a typical ‘tsunami earthquake’ that had negligibly weak ground shaking, and, therefore, no residents tried to evacuate. Figure 2 illustrates the measured tsunami inundation and run-up heights by the survey team, with plots of historical tsunami heights of the 1611 Keicho Sanriku, 1896 Meiji Sanriku, and 1933 Showa Sanriku earthquake tsunamis . For the largest possible tsunami (Level 2), the city secures multiple facilities of coastal forest, artificial hill, raised road and evacuation sites to protect citizens' lives. Among the Japanese Pacific coasts from Hokkaido down to Okinawa, the Sanriku Coast suffered the most serious damage. Before the March 1 lath earthquake, Japan set up a Wide Area Support System that would, in the event of an earthquake, … Hazard maps have two functional aspects. A tsunami was sent crashing into the country’s north-eastern coast. The contents of the warning were classified into three categories, according to the estimation of tsunami height: ‘Major tsunami’ (estimated more than 3 m), ‘Tsunami’ (estimated 1 or 2 m) and ‘Advisory’ (0.5 m or less). (a) The measured heights of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami  and historical Sanriku earthquake tsunamis (1611, 1896 and 1933 events).
This 18 m tall lighthouse built on a cliff 10 m a.s.l. After the tsunami was observed at offshore tsunami buoys, JMA revised the contents of the warning with estimates of 3 m, 6 m, over 10 m, 6 m, 4 m and 4 m to the coasts of Aomori, Iwate, Miyagi, Fukushima, Ibaraki and Chiba prefectures, respectively. After this tsunami, several villages were relocated to high ground at the personal expenses of individuals or village leaders . Coastal infrastructure such as breakwaters and seawalls cannot always protect life and property. The seawall's height was determined by considering historical tsunami heights in the past 150 years and storm surge heights in the past 50 years (Level 1). Most of the coastal villages on the Sanriku Coast were devastated again. All that remains of the lighthouse is the foundation and part of the concrete seawall. In addition, a significant feature of the 2011 tsunami was the wide extent of the inundation zone; for example, on the Sendai plain (figure 2b), the tsunami inundated more than 5 km inland, causing devastating damage to populated areas and rice fields. S.K. %PDF-1.6
After the 1990s, many local governments published tsunami hazard maps, prepared from numerical simulations. Hawaii Has 2 Hours To Prepare for Japan Earthquake Tsunami. (b) The map of tsunami inundation extent in the 2011 event (www.gsi.go.jp). It was originally reported at a magnitude of 7.9, but later was upgraded to 8.9 and then to a 9.0. Figure 3. Revisiting the modern histories of Tohoku tsunami disasters and pre-2011 tsunami countermeasures, we clarified how Japan's coastal communities have prepared for tsunamis. According to the principle of ‘Human life is most important’, this law promotes a development of tsunami-resistant communities based on the concept of multiple defences which combines infrastructure development and other forms of measures targeting the largest class tsunami . Therefore, we emphasize that Tohoku was one of the areas best prepared for a tsunami. Even in Onagawa town, 28 people were saved inside the boiler room of a five-storey RC building which was totally submerged by the tsunami inundation flow. As observed in the tsunami fragility curves, structures were especially vulnerable when the local flow depth exceeded 2 m, while a 6 m flow depth would cause everything to be washed away. Figure 5. On March 11, 2011, a devastating 9.0-magnitude quake struck under the Pacific Ocean, and the resulting tsunami caused widespread damage and claimed thousands of lives. Some of this coverage is hype and speculation, but how can Japan prepare for when a large disaster actually does affect Japan, such as the devastating earthquake and tsunami on March 11 th, 2011? Applying a video analysis technique, the tsunami flow velocity can be determined to understand the characteristics of tsunami inland penetration and impact on structures [25–30]. It was thus suggested that in the Tohoku region the Pacific plate was moving westwards with a convergence rate of 8.5 cm year−1 and was subducting beneath the North American plate at the Japan Trench; interpretation of the seismotectonic features were believed to be divided into three seismotectonic provinces  and their characteristic earthquakes. [Click here to read an independent report] 1. In dieser Riaküstenregion kam es zwischen dem 38. und 40. I join Congressman Edward Markey today to highlight my concerns on overall U.S. readiness for the … At least 50 min elapsed after the earthquake before the tsunami attacked the school. The discussion mainly focuses on structural measures such as seawalls and breakwaters and non-structural measures of hazard map and evacuation. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), which is responsible for issuing tsunami warnings/ advisories and for estimating tsunami height, employed a new system in 1999  and updated it using Earthquake Early Warnings (EEWs) in 2006 . One contribution of 14 to a theme issue ‘Tsunamis: bridging science, engineering and society’. Japan earthquake and tsunami, severe natural disaster that occurred in northeastern Japan on March 11, 2011, and killed at least 20,000 people. When the earthquake severed the connection between the nuclear power plant and the Japan electrical grid, the diesel backup system turned on as it was supposed to. by . In general, a tsunami fragility curve is defined as structural damage probability or fatality rate with particular regard to the hydrodynamic features of tsunami inundation flow, such as flow depth obtained from field measurements, current velocity and hydrodynamic force estimated with tsunami numerical modelling . Tsunami waves smashed the coast, causing massive damage and flooding. ��fQn� ��������M��ᐅ���X�Ex Japan’s 2011 Earthquake and Tsunami: Economic Effects and Implications for the U.S. Congressional Research Service Summary The March 11, 2011, earthquake and tsunami that occurred in Japan followed by the nuclear crisis are having a large negative impact on the economy of Japan but a lesser effect on world trade and 113 0 obj
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The 2011 tsunami/earthquake Using this result, Sendai city determined the land-used plan and the area of housing reconstruction and relocation. It was centered about 80 miles offshore, and tsunami warnings went up immediately. Enter your email address below and we will send you the reset instructions. In many coastal communities, people have conducted regular evacuation drills and have held workshops to learn which areas are at risk, by referring to a hazard map prepared by the local government. Tsunami warning information can inform people that they are in danger, but it cannot guarantee people's safety. Japan was not really badly affected by the earthquake because it is prepared for earthquakes – we will find out how later in this lesson. For the largest-possible tsunami level of the more than 150 year recurrence interval, the so-called extreme event (such as the 2011 Tohoku event), the government refers to this as ‘Level 2’ or ‘Preparedness/Mitigation Level’ to protect human lives and to reduce the losses and damage with comprehensive disaster management measures including coastal protection, urban planning, evacuation and public education. Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 - Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 - Relief and rebuilding efforts: In the first hours after the earthquake, Japanese Prime Minister Kan Naoto moved to set up an emergency command centre in Tokyo, and a large number of rescue workers and some 100,000 members of the Japanese Self-Defense Force were rapidly mobilized to deal with the crisis. The earthquake itself, although much bigger than usually seen in Japan, was prepared for extensively as they receive many earthquakes every year. July 6, 2011 March 11, 2011 by News Desk. SCMP Editorial. First, we review the pre-2011 Japan tsunami countermeasures developed from the experience of the past Sanriku tsunami events. Details of the inundation are discussed by Okal et al. Its construction started in 1978 and was completed in 2009, requiring an investment of almost 30 years and 120 billion yen. The tsunami source scenarios considered in preparing hazard maps are determined by the results of long-term evaluation of seismic activities. Coastal infrastructure such as breakwaters and seawalls cannot always protect life and property: even great seawalls can fail. Note that this fragility curve was obtained using the form of probability of structural destruction as a function of measured tsunami flow depth. Many field surveys were conducted to identify the damage mechanisms of structures and their impact [27,34,35]. Lastly, public education is the most important part of tsunami disaster management. “If this could happen to Japan, what about us?” This finding can inform land-use planning, so that residential areas will not be inundated more than 2 m. Also, we found high-rise RC buildings with robust columns and walls withstood tsunami flow depths over 2 m and can be used for vertical evacuation. Japan’s earthquake monitoring and tsunami warning system is one of the most sophisticated -- and costliest -- in the world, befitting an economically … Maanjäristyksen voimakkuus oli 9,0 momenttimagnitudia. 5. Author: Wendy Sue Swanson, MD, MBE. However, its size was unexpectedly large (Mw 9.0). U.S. Preparedness for Catastrophic Nuclear Power Plant Accidents and the U.S. Capacity to Protect Children With Appropriate Availability of Potassium Iodide Dr. Irwin Redlener Washington, March 29, 2011 I join Congressman Edward Markey today to highlight my concerns on overall U.S. readiness for the possibility of a catastrophic nuclear power plant accident and to underscore the particular failure to protect children by appropriate availability of potassium iodide (KI) needed to prevent cancer in those w… Following the guideline, coastal cities and towns in Japan had prepared tsunami hazard maps with estimated inundation zones, the list of shelters where people could evacuate and instructions on how to survive a tsunami. Most tsunamis are generated by earthquakes that occur in subduction zones, the areas where oceanic plates subduct beneath overriding continental plates. Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Japan’s 2011 Earthquake and Tsunami: Food and Agriculture Implications Renée Johnson Specialist in Agricultural Policy May 18, 2011 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R41766 We revisited the lessons of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami disaster specifically on the response and impact, and discussed the paradigm shift of Japan's tsunami disaster management policies and the perspectives for reconstruction. As a national guideline of preparing flood hazard maps, the Cabinet Office published ‘Tsunami and Storm Surge Hazard Map Manual’ in 2004 . On 6 October 2011, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology published a report of student fatalities and injuries: in total, 635 children, students and teachers were killed by the tsunami, and 221 were injured. On the other hand, a hazard map can function to assure residents living outside of the expected inundation zone that their area is not at risk. 97 0 obj
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